The injustice faced in developing and industrialized countries by ethnic communities is a growing problem and we all need to work together to eradicate it.
Race applies to groups of individuals (Sagepub, 2020) that are relatively close in their biological legacy and distinct from other community groups. However, the word race does not have much significance scientifically. Yet culture gives meaning to the concept by categorizing it as a social class.
In historic American society, the concept of the race eventually transitioned to slavery, promoting the belief that one race could be weaker than another. Globally, we continue to witness ethnic discrimination - political and economic disadvantages experienced by racial minority populations. Such inequality is not just unjust, it is a drain on global economic prosperity and does not go away easily.
According to Sagepub, racism has at least 3 aspects: individual prejudices; ideological discrimination, where ideology and nature are used to rationalize and defend the dominant culture's superior position; and structural racism, where institutional policies and processes work to create clear and persistent disparities between races.
Examples of inequality are very common in developing and developed countries (Omar Khan, 2020), developing nations like India have an unresolved racial disparity. Although overall poverty is decreasing, poverty rates for certain communities, including Adivasis, Dalits, and Muslims, are typically higher.
There is a direct correlation between race and employment around the world. Minority groups are often associated with occupations that limit economic mobility, offer less compensation and rewards, compared to the opportunities available to the general population.
Probably the most prominent example is the Indian caste system. While the caste system has evolved explicitly in recent decades, the extreme segregation tradition linked with the lack of tolerance in 1950 was banned. Looking at developed nations like the UK and Europe, new migrants often work in precarious or exploitative environments in most European countries and in low-pay employment that can be considered too low for the local people to work in.
Even European-born ethnic minorities of the next generation seem to have been unable to break this poor pay trap in many instances. We are mindful of the 12% (Omar Khan, 2020) work disparity in the UK between White Britain and ethnic minorities.
In the UK, there is about five hundred thousand jobs 'missing.' The Department of Jobs and Pensions figures from 2013 indicate an employment rate of black, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi young workers as 45-percent compared to 19 percent for white persons.
Research has found (David Isaac, 2020) that the commission's latest race report released in August includes outcomes throughout England and Wales. Written across various fields where racism based on ethnicity is apparent, it analyzed how different ethnic groups have been affected. In England and Wales, for example, the likelihood of black men being arrested and searched is fivefold compared to white men, ethnic people in custody or police detention is dramatically higher in ethnic minorities than white people and 40 percent of inmates younger than 18 years were Black, Asian, Mixed or Other from 2014 to 2015.
In the enforcement of the death penalty, which Human Rights Watch rejects because of its intrinsic brutality (hrw, 2020), injustice can be especially destructive. There are several grounds for discrimination, the nature of the underlying crime, and the punishment that is ostensibly used, including determining which individuals are executed and which individuals are permitted to live.
Particularly where the proper procedure of law is followed, innocent citizens are often enforced by the intrinsic fallibility of all criminal justice processes. Due to the permanent nature of such judgments, such mistakes can never be corrected in the justice system. For instance, in the US state of Maryland, Black people accounted for 79.2% of vehicles stopped and checked by police on Interstate 95 over a two-year period, while they accounted for just 17.5% of drivers who violated traffic regulations.
The Russian propiska permit scheme offers police an excuse to threaten, unfairly detain, and extort people distinguished by racial characteristics. In September 1999, two bombings of mass arrests of ethnic Chechens who lived in the city took more than twenty thousand Chechens at police stations. The police officials were barred from Moscow police.
A second study by the New York State Judicial Commission on Minorities (1991) found that two courts operate in the State of New York City (Sagepub, 2020), one for whites and one for minorities and the poor. The committee identified racism, unequal treatment, and race-based injustice in the justice system, they sighted that minority households were viewed by court officials with a lack of consideration and courtesy. The panel concluded that minority trials require just 4 to 5 minutes and that the Black convicted often heard their cases outside New York City by an all-white jury. An analysis of adults (Perfas, Mendoza, and Gass, 2020) around the country was undertaken by the Pew Research Center in 2019. They found that 61 percent of white Americans agreed the criminal justice system was less fair to handle Black people than white people. Yet 87 percent of Black Americans saw the scheme as unjust. Black people claim that people of color are detained by the police around five times more than white adults. And 77% of Black Americans said that minorities are more likely to be put to death for similar crimes than white people. Fewer than half white commentators agreed.
The disparity in these numbers between people of color and white Americans is reflective of the problem at hand.
Indian has sought to counter racial discrimination. In political participation, schooling, and public-sector jobs, the Dalits, the Adivasis, and other minority groups (but not the Muslims) benefited from a structural form of affirmative action and the quota systems (Omar Khan, 2020). Via the introduction of these types of positive discriminations, countries around the world including Malaysia, Rwanda, South Africa, and Iraq are improving the inclusion of minority groups. Particularly through government interventions in post-conflict situations.
In supporting and protecting universal civil rights principles, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (hrw, 2020) has played an important role. The CERD's General Guidelines on the Convention for the Abolition of All Types of Racial Discrimination provided critical interpretative directions for action to combat discrimination.
Whenever a State implements a limitation on one of the rights mentioned in Article 5 of the Convention that is potentially applicable to all of the States under its competence, it must ensure that, as an integral part of international human rights norms, the restriction in some manner is incompatible with Article 1. In order to determine if this is the case, the Commission is obligated to further investigate to ensure that this constraint does not include racial discrimination.
To conclude, injustice systems racial inequalities remain unresolved. The biases to minority races are strongly seated in cultural and social beliefs. It is an issue that has unparalleled effects on emerging and developed countries. Global economic development and our societies' prosperity depend on all people being treated fairly and being given equal opportunity. As such, governments and senior decision-makers must create frameworks that are inclusive, consultative, and ethical to eliminate racial partiality.